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5 Distribution of 9 -THC in the s from 1 plants collected at the height 1. m above ground level (Northen Light strain) 3 3 Flowers Leaves 2 = (2.2 x) = (1.62 x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Northen Light strain). 1-3, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. 3 2 = (1.9 x) 1 Flowers Leaves = (1.6 x) 31

Part III Medicinal cannabis samples

    Beverley Natalie Terry 3 years ago Views:

1 Samples seized in Israel and Czech Republic we describe for the first time, as they look as real hashish, but have nothing at all with real hashish. There were not find even traces of any compound typical for cannabis. Seized hashish, as we proved, has nothing with real hashish at all even when it looks as real hashish. The main ingredients of this hashish s were identified as henna powder (Lawsonia inermis) and oleoresin of pine (Pinus spp.). Part III Medicinal cannabis s The second part of this study was analyses of medicinal cannabis, distributed in Israel to the patients as plant and its products (flowering tops, oil, cookies etc.). A scientific literary review At present time there is almost nothing known about medicinal cannabis concerning content compounds important for treatment of different illnesses. After discovery of CB 1 and CB 2 cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids which bind to these receptors scientist started to understand the mechanism of effects of cannabinoid compounds on human organism [29-49]. At present time cannabis is used in Israel (and several other countries around the world) for medicinal purposes. As palliative medicine is today cannabis moreless understood. Concerning the active content compounds we know today only about medicinal properties of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol but we are not fully sure about the optimal dose for treatment. Today 1 to 1 % patients stop cannabis treatment 27

2 as it does not help them or they do not feel good after cannabis treatment and we do not know why. Real therapeutic values of medicinal cannabis are at present in shadow and must be studied scientifically. In the fact there are almost no studies concerning quality of medicinal cannabis. One must also understand that medicinal cannabis can be abused as sometime it is more potent than very good quality hashish which one can find on the black market. Methodology Procedure 2 mg of ground female flowering tops of cannabis were extracted with methanol and filtered through cotton in a capillary. Final concentration equals extract from 1 mg of female flowering tops with g internal standard (tetracosane) in 1 ml. One l of this was injected to GC/MS for analysis. Instrumentation, Conditions of the analysis, Standards and solutions The same as with hashish (see Part I). Thin-layer chromatography was performed with the s prepared for quantitative analyses in solvent systems n-hexane dioxane (4 : 1) and petroleum ether ether (4 : 1). 28

3 Results Samples of medicinal cannabis were analyzed qualitatively with the help of thin-layer chromatography and quantitatively by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to evaluate quality of cannabis strains cultivated and used in Israel for medicinal purposes. The type of medicinal cannabis use and homogeneity was also studied. Example of thin-layer chromatograms of the main standards and real s: 29

4 A. Homogeneity of the buds (female flowering tops without surrounding small leaves) from different plants of the same strain of cannabis and ins >

5 Distribution of 9 -THC in the s from 1 plants collected at the height 1. m above ground level (Northen Light strain) 3 3 Flowers Leaves 2 = (2.2 x) = (1.62 x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Northen Light strain). 1-3, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. 3 2 = (1.9 x) 1 Flowers Leaves = (1.6 x) 31

6 Distribution of 9 -THC in the s from 1 plants collected at the height 1. m above ground level (Free Leonard Cola strain) 2 2 Flowers Leaves = (3.3 x) = (3.33 x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Free Leonard Cola strain). 1 -, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. 3 Flowers Leaves 2 = (1.6 x) = (4.26 x) Differences in 9 -THC content inside one strain between different plants and inside one plant can explain why patients smoking medical cannabis sometime complain that it too much influenced their psyche. This is also one of the reasons, why I suggest using medicinal cannabis by different way (even when by smoking 32

7 palliative influence of medicinal cannabis is the fastest) e.g. as cakes, oil, suppository etc. Courtesy of the IMC Chaklaut company were obtained cannabis s for research purposes used in this study. Cannabis female flowering tops without surrounding small leaves and surrounding leaves were analyzed and compared ins >

8 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Sputnik strain). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 3). 3 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Sputnik strain). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 4) = (1.27 x) 2 1 = (1.13 x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Sputnik strain). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. ). 3 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Sputnik strain). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 6). 3 2 = = (1.23 x) (1.2 x)

9 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Sputnik strain). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 7). 3 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Sputnik strain). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 8). 3 2 = (1.17 x) 2 = (1.1 x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Sputnik strain). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 9). 3 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (Sputnik strain). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 1) = (1.31 x) 2 1 = (1.34 x)

10 Distribution of 9 -THC in ten single cannabis plants of the same strain (Sputnik strain). Five s from the bottom to the top of the each plant (from the left to the right) = (1. x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single cannabis plants of the same strain (Sputnik strain). Five s from the bottom to the top of the each plant (from the left to the right) = (1. x) 36

11 frequency THC histogram. Frequency of single-plant s (Sputnik strain) versus 9 -THC concentration (%) (1. x) Courtesy of the Chevrat Sijach company were obtained cannabis s for research purposes used in this study. Cannabis female flowering tops without surrounding small leaves and surrounding leaves were analyzed and compared ins >

12 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain C). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 3). 2 1 = (1.29 x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain C). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 4). 2 1 = (1.24 x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single cannabis plants of the same strain (strain C). Five s from the bottom to the top of the each plant (from the left to the right). 2 2 = 17.3 ± (1.8 x)

13 frequency Distribution of 9 -THC in single cannabis plants of the same strain (strain C). Five s from the bottom to the top of the each plant (from the left to the right) = 17.3 ± (1.8 x) THC histogram. Frequency of different plants of the strain C versus 9 -THC concentration (%) (1.8 x) 3 2 = 17.3 ±

14 Used strain: Strain 9: Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 1). 2 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 2) = (1.27 x) 1 1 = (1.21 x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 3). 2 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 4) = (1.34 x) 1 1 = (1.22 x)

15 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. ). 2 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 6). 2 1 = = (1.6 x) (1.9 x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 7). 2 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 8). 2 = = (1.38 x) (1.16 x)

16 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 9). 2 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). 1 -, s from the bottom to the top of the plant (plant No. 1). 2 1 = (1.16 x) 1 = (1.28 x) Distribution of 9 -THC in single cannabis plants of the same strain (strain 9). Five s from the bottom to the top of the each plant (from the left to the right) = 1.4 ± (2. x)

17 frequency Distribution of 9 -THC in single cannabis plants of the same strain (strain 9). Five s from the bottom to the top of the each plant (from the left to the right) = 1.4 ± (2. x) THC histogram. Frequency of different plants of the strain 9 versus 9 -THC concentration (%) (2. x) 1 = 1.4 ±

18 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9, plant 1). A – E, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9, plant 2). A – E, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. 2 Leaves Flowers 2 Leaves Flowers 1 = = = = A B C D E A B C D E Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9, plant 3). A – E, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9, plant 4). A – E, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. 2 Leaves Flowers 2 Leaves Flowers 1 = = = = A B C D E A B C D E 44

19 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9, plant ). A – E, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9, plant 6). A – E, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. 2 Leaves Flowers 2 Leaves Flowers 1 = = = = A B C D E A B C D E Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9, plant 7). A – E, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9, plant 8). A – E, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. 2 Leaves Flowers 2 Leaves Flowers = = = =. +.9 A B C D E A B C D E 4

20 frequency Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9, plant 9). A – E, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9, plant 1). A – E, s from the top to the bottom of the plant. 2 Leaves Flowers 2 Leaves Flowers 1 = = = = A B C D E A B C D E THC histogram for small leaves surrounding the female flowering tops. Frequency of different plants of the strain 9 versus 9 -THC concentration (%) (4.9 x) 1 1 = 4.2 ± As small leaves surrounding the female flowering tops can be contaminated by the resin from the female flowering tops, the results of analyses of these leaves are not probably the results of just only leaves, but of leaves + more or less amount 46

21 of stuck resin on this small leaves. Because of that it does not give us real picture about these small leaves and differences are so big (up to 4.9 x). Strain 9 of cannabis used in Israel for treatment comparison of different flowering tops together with leaves surrounding these flowering tops Female flowering tops were analyzed as were supplied, e.g. also with small leaves. This is the difference from previous analyses, as the amount of leaves can influence the content of 9 -THC in the flowering top. A from the top of the plant; B from the middle of the plant C from the bottom of the plant; D from the top of the plant (closer to the main stem) E from the middle of the plant (closer to the main stem) Table 2. Content of 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol in %. variety 9 A B C D E

22 16 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). A – E, s from the single plant (plant No. 2). 16 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). A – E, s from the single plant (plant No. 21). 12 = = (1.44 x) (1.83 x) 4 4 A B C D E A B C D E 16 Distribution of 9 -THC in single plant (strain 9). A – E, s from the single plant (plant No. 22) = (1.67 x) 4 A B C D E 16 Distribution of 9 -THC in single cannabis plants of the same strain (strain 9). Five s from the bottom to the top of the each plant (from the left to the right). 12 = 12.9 ± (1.9 x)

23 frequency Distribution of 9 -THC in single cannabis plants of the same strain (strain 9). Five s from the bottom to the top of the each plant (from the left to the right). 2 1 = 12.9 ± (1.9 x) THC histogram. Frequency of different plants of the strain 9 versus 9 -THC concentration (%).. = 12.9 ± (1.9 x)

24 Results From the above result it is justified concern that patient even when using the same strain and the same amount of medicinal cannabis can smoke different amounts of the active compound for treatment (up to double dose) what can influence his/her treatment. B. Fermentation of medicinal cannabis As for some patients smoking of cannabis is unpleasant, the technique of fermentation is employed similarly as for tobacco or tea to make the smoke smoother. If the fermentation is stopped early, the marihuana has a sweeter taste because of the sugars which the ferment produced. I studied this process in comparison with the changes of THC content. The results are in the following table. As one can see from this table, decrease of THC content is not such dramatic and it is worth for patients which do not like the smoke of dried marihuana. Cannabis strain CBD (%) 9 – THC (%) CBN (%) Pandora s Box t 12.1 t Pandora s Box after 1 day fermentation Pandora s Box after 2 days fermentation Pandora s Box after 3 days fermentation Pandora s Box after 4 days fermentation Pandora s Box after days fermentation t t t t t 8.1.

25 Critical Mass t Critical Mass after 1 day fermentation Critical Mass after 2 days fermentation Critical Mass after 3 days fermentation Critical Mass after 4 days fermentation Critical Mass after days fermentation t t t t t C. Inhaled Medicinal marihuana and the immunocompromised patient Medicinal marihuana is a valuable medication in certain specified medical conditions, mostly for immunocompromised patients. If the patient cannot tolerate the cookies or the sublingual oily drops, the remaining methods are smoking or evaporation. Evaporation produces cannabinoid molecules with minimal tar and other smoking by products. However, as every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and its flowers. Those could put the patient under the risk of opportunistic lung infections, mainly by inhaled molds. We measured the loss of cannabinoid molecular activity under various methods of sterilization. Under sterilization process amount of 9 -THC decreased between 12.6 and 26.6 % (see table and graph bellow) 1

26 content of 9 -THC decrease of 9 -THC in % unprocessed 1. ±.2 after plasma sterilization 13.1 ± after heat sterilization 11.6 ± after ethylene oxide gas sterilization 11. ± Influence of sterilization on 9 -THC content in medicinal marihuana buds. 9 -THC content in marihuana buds (%) unprocessed plasma sterilization heat sterilization (autoclave) ethylene oxide gas sterilization 2

27 Conclusions To sterilize a of medicinal marihuana it is the best to use plasma sterilization, which is the mildest one, as during our experiment the amount of 9 – THC decreased only by 12.6 %. D. Efficiency of mechanical cannabinoids purification from the plant. At present time became popular between cannabis abusers to purify cannabis resin from the flowering tops. The resulted material has higher amount of THC than the starting one. To check the efficiency of this process, this methods used by abusers were applied in research effort. Courtesy of the company Chevrat Sijach were obtained cannabis s for research purposes used in this study. 1. Sieved plant material Cannabis female flowering tops were analyzed as usually for the main cannabinoid compounds and after that worked up. Regular analysis revealed in the flowering tops of the strain Yellow C traces of CBD, 23.2% THC, and.2% CBN. Subsequently this was sieved through the sieve of different mesh with the following result. Cannabis strain CBD (%) 9 -THC (%) CBN (%) Yellow C – 73 mesh t Yellow C – 12 mesh t Yellow C – 16 mesh

28 Conclusion Just simple sieving can give material with almost twice higher amount of THC than in the flowering tops. 2. Bubble hash Bubble hash is refined hashish that bubbles when smoked. It include a sieving system that uses ice, water and multiple levels of screening in order to remove the resin gland heads from the cannabis plant material, and to further remove any impurities from the hashish leaving a very pure resin. The use of only water and multiple levels of sieving to isolate the concentrated material is ideal for healthconscious consumers and/or medical patients for whom which chemical processing is un-desirable or possibly a health risk. In the following experiments analyses of the flowering tops are followed by table with bubble hash analyses. Regular analysis revealed in the flowering tops of the strain Carl 6.1% CBD,.4% THC, and traces of CBN. Cannabis strain CBD (%) 9 -THC (%) CBN (%) Carl bubble hash Carl flowering tops after bubble hash t t – 4

29 Regular analysis revealed in the flowering tops of the strain Yellow C traces of CBD, 23.2% THC, and.2% CBN. Cannabis variety CBD (%) 9 -THC (%) CBN (%) Yellow C Yellow C the rest after bubble hash preparation Regular analysis revealed in the flowering tops of the strain 8 no CBD, 17.7% THC, and traces of CBN. Cannabis strain Bubble hash from flowering tops – plant 8 CBD (%) CBN (%) 9 -THC (%) t Conclusion Work-up of the cannabis flowers to prepare bubble hash isolated present cannabinoids almost quantitatively and the concentration of THC increased approximately 3 4 times. The danger of the above studied methods proved, that by this way abusers of cannabis can very simply increase activity of cannabis and also the volume of illegal s for illicit traffic can allow them to smuggle such material more easily. At the same time it can be the way to make medical cannabis for patients more pure.

30 %CBD or 9 -THC %CBD or 9 -THC E. Strains of medicinal cannabis, cultivated in Israel with CBD content more than 1%. It was found by analyses that the spectrum of medicinal cannabis in Israel cover all necessary ratios of CBD and THC as follows: 1. Strains with low CBD and high 9 -THC 2 CBD versus 9 -THC(high 9 -THC) Strains with high CBD and low 9 -THC 3 CBD versus 9 -THC (high CBD)

31 %CBD or 9 -THC %CBD or 9 -THC 3. Strains with high CBD and high 9 -THC 2 CBD versus 9 -THC (high CBD, high 9 -THC) Strains with approximately the same content of CBD and 9 -THC (difference in content is less than 1 %) natural Sativex 1 CBD versus 9 -THC (approximately ana partes)

32 F. Different cannabis strains used by farmers in Israel In Israel there are about eight companies which grow medicinal cannabis for therapeutic use. Unfortunately each of these companies uses cannabis strains and products of cannabis according to their decision or availability. Because of that not every patient has the same possibility to obtain certain cannabis product for his/her illness. From analyses of medicinal cannabis and products from medicinal cannabis which I did during the last years the result was that there is too much strains (even when we today understand that for different illnesses different cannabis strains are supposed to be used, there is necessity for limited amount of different strains). I understand that companies in Israel, which grow cannabis, compete between them, but with health of our patients we cannot compete and because of that should be selected several different strains, which will be available for all patients and these will be the most efficient different strains for different illnesses. From the analyses of the s, which were supplied by legal growers in Israel, resulted that in present time I analyzed 73 well known strains (part of them is used around the world for recreational use) and another 189 strains which are under different names, numbers or letters (there is possibility that part of these are used by growers to prevent identification of their strains). This gives us altogether 262 different strains. Below are the strains used by different farmers. 73 well known strains: Afghan Kush – Cann Pharmaceutical 8

33 Agent Orange – IMC Chaklaut Ak-47 (Ak-47 Marijuana Strain) – Cann Pharmaceutical, PharmoCann Bazooka – CannDoc BCTP (BC Bud Depot – The Purps) – CannDoc Blueberry – PharmoCann Buddha s sister – PharmoCann Burmese – CannDoc Cannatonic (MK Ultra x G-13 Haze) IMC Chaklaut Cannatonic 1 (MK Ultra x G-13 Haze) – IMC Chaklaut Cannatonic 2 – IMC Chaklaut Cannatonic x Thai – Chevrat Sijach Cherry Berry – CannDoc Cinderella – PharmoCann Costa Rica – Tikun Olam Critical – Royal Queen – PharmoCann Critical Mass – IMC Chaklaut Critical – Royal Queen Seeds – PharmoCann Dairy Queen – IMC Chaklaut Diesel Barcelona – CannDoc, Teva Adir 9

34 Double Gum Buds – Chevrat Sijach Early durban x Double gum – Chevrat Sijach Fabiana – CannDoc, Teva Adir Free Leonard x Northen light (FL NL) – CannDoc, PharmoCann Free Leonard – CannDoc, Kibutz Elifaz, Abarbanel G13 x Haze (G13 Marijuana Strain + Haze Marijuana Strain) – Chevrat Sijach Green Perkel – CannDoc God Bud – CannDoc Hawaii – CannDoc, Teva Adir Him CannDoc Himalaya – CannDoc, PharmoCann Himalaya Gold – PharmoCann Jack Herrer (JH) – CannDoc, Kibutz Elifaz Jack s Cleaner – IMC Chaklaut Kandy Kush – IMC Chaklaut Kandy Kush x Skunk – IMC Chaklaut Kush – IMC Chaklaut Lemon – Cann Pharmaceutical M-13 – Shaefa LeChajim 6

35 Magma CannDoc Maomao x Sage – CannDoc Maomao x Choco – CannDoc Mark-V – Cann Pharmaceutica, CannDoc Master Kush – Chevrat Sijach Maui Waui Teva Adir Northen Light (NL) – CannDoc Pandora’s Box – IMC Chaklaut Power plant – Chevrat Sijach Purple – Chevrat Sijach Purple Budha Teva Adir Purple Kush – Cann Pharmaceutical, PharmoCann Purps PharmoCann Red Horse Teva Adir Royal Medica Teva Adir Sage – CannDoc Shark CannDoc Skunk Teva Adir Sour Tsunami – CannDoc 61

36 Sour Diesel – PharmoCann Sour Diesel x AK-47 – Chevrat Sijach Special Queen – PharmoCann Sputnik – IMC Chaklaut Star Jack – CannDoc, Teva Adir Super Silver Haze – Tikun Olam Super skunk – Chevrat Sijach Swazi Safari PharmoCann Sweet and Saur Widdow – CannDoc Thai – CannDoc Thai x Free Leonard – CannDoc Tora Bora – PharmoCann White Russian – Cann Pharmaceutica, CannDoc, Abarbanel White Widow – CannDoc Zardde-2 (Sour Diesel + AK47) Chevrat Sijach 189 strains (may be cultivars of these farms?): Abarbanel (): 62

37 Choco HIM 136 LC 286 G L.S.K TP 112 Ministery of Health (1): Agro Mazor CannDoc (32): BCTP#2 BCTP#6 (BC Bud Depot – The Purps) Choco Green Toffy FL-2 FL-3 FL NL#1 FL NL #2 FL NL #3 63

38 FLC 16/6 FLC 2/1 FLC 2/3 FLNL #2 FLNL #3 JH#3 JH#4 JH# JH#6 JH#8 LC#2 LC-NZ NL6 NL1 Sage 2 Toffy 1 Toffy 2 TP 112 TP #6 19/12 64

39 WR-1 WR-2 WR-4 WR- Cann Pharmaceutica (): #7 #8 AM LC-NZ PK Chevrat Sijach (34): 9 e 9 ee (/8) white G AC-1 6

40 Arad#2 AT-1 Blue BSK-1 Brown Cannabol Placebo Delbik# GPB-1 Madaf Maya Orange Papy Pink A Red 7 Red 9 White White 6 WTR-1 Yellow C 66

41 Zalman Zan A Zan C Zan 6 Zan 6A Zan 7 Zan 7B Zan 8 Zan 9 IMC Chaklaut (28): AF AFF AFG AFL-3 AFL-6 Dina Ela Hadas 67

42 Jael Lital Lilach PaZ הדס ליטל יעל אלה לילך הראל ניצן אלה דינה ניצן ירדן שולה

43 4 Kibutz Elifaz (2): LC TP PharmoCann (6): C3 C6 C1 Chum Jarok VZT Shaefa LeChajim (21): Adom Cahov DQ-IMC Jarok Lilach Lavan Sagol 69

44 Turkiz U.Z.A.F. Varod אמטיסט אודם I אודם II אודם III ענבר I ענבר II צהוב לבן וורוד אדום ירוק Tikun Olam (7): ב”ה 1 ב”ה 2 ב”ה 3 ב”ה 4 7

45 (חורץ) A (סגול) B B11 B12 B13 B21 B22 B23 B31 B32 B33 B61 B12 (HELENA) B22 (AVIDEKEL) B31 (MIDNIGHT) B61 (ALASKA) Barcelona-72 (BO 72) Barcelona-73 (BO 73) C סאטיבה) s) 71

46 Carl CBD9 Costa Rica (חורץ) Chorec (ארז) D DO3 Dorit (B12 OR) Dorit 1 Dorit 2 (GOG&MAGOG) Dorit 3 (LITTLE DEVIL) Dorit 4 (JASMIN) Eran EREZ (ארז) Erez A (ארז) Erez B Jarden Kol HaTor Nican S- 72

47 Sagol Sativa Shula Vered X X- X-7 X-8 X-1 ערן אלמוג אור אל-נא אלנה מור רפאל Conclusion In my aim to do the best research and to have good result it is necessary to say, that some of these companies were not ready to reveal abbreviations of their cannabis strains or how they prepared cannabis products. As it is medicine it is 73

48 important to know how this medicament was prepared and what was exactly used for the preparation. I suggest centralize it, what means to find the best procedures which will be obliged to use all companies dealing with medicinal cannabis. There is necessary to study illnesses and their treatment with different strains of cannabis and choose certain amount of different strains, which will be used in Israel for treatment. There must be also general decision which cannabis preparations will be allowed and known way how to prepare them. There is no place for growers to have secret strains and secret recipes for cannabis products preparation. It must be centrally organized and must be known all details concerning cannabis preparation as this is medicine for patients and not secret pill. Any official strain of cannabis for treatment must be available for any patient in any place in Israel. Discussion Formerly the plant s were high – 9 -THC ones, but today are cultivated also CBD-rich strains. The importance of CBD in the medical cannabis was already proved by scientific research. Medicinal cannabis was recently almost exclusively used by smoking. The main cannabinoids are in the plant predominately in the form of their precursors cannabinoid acids. During smoking process these acids decarboxylate to the appropriate neutral cannabinoids and because of that it was not necessary to process these s by any way. All 9 -THC-rich s have usually extremely high content of 9 -THC, so these s are more efficient than regular hashish or marijuana. 74

49 number of s number of s It was proved that not only plant of the same strain, but also flowering tops from the same plant are not of the same quality, what means that patient does not use all the time the same amount of active compounds. It looks that in spectrum of different cannabis strains, cultivated in Israel are almost all necessary ratios of the main cannabinoids, CBD and THC. The only missing strains are these with low CBD and low THC content (e.g. below 1 % of each) and such strains have also important medicinal value. If we compare high THC s (content between 12.1 and 2. % THC) of seized hashish and medicinal cannabis (female flowering tops) studied in this grant it is evident that at hashish s are only 1.6 % of such s contrary medical cannabis where such s are 44. % (see Graph 1 and 2 below) s of seized hashish s of female flowering tops (medicinal cannabis) % THC frequency group % THC frequency group Graph 1 and 2. Frequency of 9 -THC concentrations at seized hashish s and medical flowering tops ones. 7

50 mg 9 -THC in 1 g oil G. Results of analyses of different cannabis products for treatment from all growers 476 s: 4 Analyses of medicinal cannabis (female flowering tops) s: Number of analyses traces up to 36.7 % = 14.1 ± 6.88 (.32) = mean ± SD (SEM) Analyses of cannabis oil (cannabis extract in plant oil) Number of analyses.2 up to mg/g oil = ± 6.63 (6.32) = mean ± SD (SEM) 76

51 mg 9 -THC in 1 g cake 9 s: Analyses of cannabis extract Number of analyses.2 % up to 9.8 % = ± (2.47) = mean ± SD (SEM) 31 s: 1. Analyses of cannabis cakes Number of analyses. mg up to 9.4 mg/g = 3.33 ± 2.47 (.44) = mean ± SD (SEM) 77

52 mg 9 -THC in 1 ml mg 9 -THC in 1 g butter 28 s: Analyses of cannabis butter Number of analyses 9.1 up to 67.8 mg/g butter = ± 1.4 (2.91) = mean ± SD (SEM) 11 s: 12 Analyses of cannabis tincture Number of analyses 4.1 up to 19.6 mg/ml = ± 36. (11.2) = mean ± SD (SEM) 78

53 mg 9 -THC in 1 g cream 6 s: Analyses of cannabis skin cream Number of analyses 7. up to 29.1 mg/g cream = 14.8 ± 8.42 (3.44) = mean ± SD (SEM) The other food products, supplied for analysis were: 1. Juice from fresh cannabis 33.8 (plant material after juice squeezing had 3.2 ) and 7.4 g 9 -THC /ml 2. Caramel candy with cannabis – 2. and 6.2 mg 9 -THC/g 3. Chocolate with cannabis 1.1 and 4.1 mg 9 -THC/g 4. Cream for filling waffles and cakes and 4.1 mg 9 -THC/g. Sugar with cannabis 7.1 mg 9 -THC/g 6. Honey with cannabis.4,.8 and 1.4 mg 9 -THC/g 7. Dry fruits with cannabis 1.3 mg 9 -THC/g 8. Syrup with cannabis.7 mg 9 -THC/g 9. Suppository with cannabis.3 mg 9 -THC/g 79

54 Analyses of legal alcoholic beverages which appeared in the recent years on Israel market: Cannabis vodka (Česká republika) pivo Boxer Hacienda (Švýcarsko) pivo Boxer Hacienda (Švýcarsko) pivo Boxer Hacienda (Švýcarsko) pivo Spirit of Hemp (Rakousko) CBD 9 -THC CBN ( g/l) ( g/l) ( g/l) ,4 333, Recommendation From the above results it is justified concern that patient even when using the same strain and the same amount of medicinal cannabis can smoke different amounts of the active compound for treatment (up to double dose) what can influence his/her treatment. I suggest using different methods than by smoking (per os, per rectum, and creams for skin) medicinal cannabis as extracts, cannabis in oil, cakes, creams, suppositories etc. or homogenize plant material and give to patient average reproducible of plant material (if they use it by smoking or by vaporization). As in the plant material are cannabinoids predominantly in the form of appropriate cannabinoid acids, it is necessary to decarboxylate these acids, if the does not undergoes thermal decarboxylation process. 8

55 There is no place for growers to have secret strains and secret recipes for cannabis products preparation. It must be centrally organized and must be known all details concerning cannabis preparation as this is medicine for patients and not secret pill. Any official strain of cannabis for treatment must be available for any patient in any place in Israel. As it is medicine it is important to know how this medicament was prepared and what was exactly used for the preparation. I suggest centralize it, what means to find the best procedures which will be obliged to use all companies dealing with medicinal cannabis. It is also necessary to cultivate cannabis with low amounts of CBD and/or THC (below 1 %), as at certain illnesses it is also suitable medicine for patients. It is truth that during smoking medicinal cannabis the active compounds cross blood/brain barrier very fast and patient may feel the influence of this medical preparation almost instantly. On the other side it is necessary to use other ways of use, as smoking of any plant material is not healthy and harms the health of patient. As patient does not use medicinal cannabis in life-threatening situations, it is recommended to use different way of use than smoking. It is truth that by different way than smoking the effect occurs more slowly, but on the other side this effect has a longer duration what is for patient advantageous. References: [1] E.L. Abel, Marihuana: The first twelve thousand years, Plenum Press, New York, 198, pp [2] H.-L. Li, An archaeological and historical account of Cannabis in China. Econ. Bot. 28 (1974)

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58 transform infrared spectrometry. I. Origin-composition relation hypothesis. Bulletin de la Societe de Pharmacie de Lille 41(4), (198) [2] Idilbi M. M., Huvenne J. P., Fleury G., Tran Van Ky P., Muller P. H., Moschetto Y.: Cannabis analysis using gas chromatography coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. I. Origin-composition relationship hypothesis. Analusis 13(3), (198) [21] Brenneisen Rudolf, ElSohly Mahmoud A.: Chromatographic and spectroscopic profiles of Cannabis of different origins: Part I. Journal of Forensic Sciences 33(6), (1988) [22] K. Narayanaswami, H.C. Golani, H.L. Bami, R. D. Dua. Stability of Cannabis sativa L. s and their extracts, on prolonged storage in Delhi. Bull. Narc. 3 (1978) [23] C.E. Turner, P.C. Cheng, G.S. Lewis, M.H. Russell, G.K. Sharma. Constituents of Cannabis sativa. XV: botanical and chemical profile of Indian variants. Planta Med. 37 (1979) [24] A. Ohlsson, C.I. Abou-Chaar, S. Agurell, I.M. Nilsson, K. Olofsson, F. Sandberg. Cannabinoid constituents of male and female Cannabis sativa. Bull. Narc. 23 (1971) [2] P. B. Baker, K. R. Bagon, T. A. Gough Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products. Bull. Narc. 32 (198) [26] P. B. Baker, T. A. Gough, S. I. M. Johncock, B. J. Taylor, L. T. Wyles. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products – Part II. Bull. Narc. 34 (1982)

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62 Final note This report gives a brief overview of a three-year study of seized hashish s analyses and evaluation of medicinal cannabis s. 88