A regulatory no-man's land and a consumer craze have created a perfect storm of untested oils for vaping. Assess the benefits and risks of vaping in this complete guide. Learn about different CBD products and how to purchase them safely. Vaping CBD is legal in the UK, and we're here to address your safety concerns. Research tells us that compliant CBD Oil Vape Pens and CBD oils are safe to use. Furthermore, discover the safest way to vape CBD Oil and some of the benefits of vaping.
Vaping CBD carries unique risks
People like vaping because it’s a smokeless, convenient, and fast-acting way to consume pleasure-inducing chemicals including THC and nicotine. It’s also potentially quite dangerous—and that’s also true when it comes to vaping cannabidiol, the popular cannabis-derived compound known as CBD. In fact, thanks to a regulatory no-man’s-land, a consumer craze, and manufacturers who dilute extract with oils better suited for salad dressings, CBD vapes are uniquely risky.
As of Oct. 10, more than 1,200 cases of a mysterious vaping-related illness, and 26 related deaths had been reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is advising consumers to “consider refraining” from vaping altogether. Of the 771 patients the CDC previously reported data on, the majority reported vaping THC and/or nicotine. Only about 17% reported having vaped a CBD product, but there is still good reason for CBD enthusiasts to take note—and even to be especially cautious.
“There’s no regulations.”
“There’s no regulations, there’s no one telling companies what to do,” says Jonathan Miller, general counsel for the trade group US Hemp Roundtable. “I don’t want to say it incentivizes bad behavior but it certainly doesn’t crack down on bad behavior.”
While no single brand, product, or ingredient has been identified as the cause of the 1,000-plus cases of vaping-associated pulmonary injury—first called VAPI and now renamed EVALI—we do know that many of the affected patients were vaping illicit, and therefore unregulated, THC products. Tests showed many of those contained vitamin E acetate, an oil derived from vitamin E—which is considered safe for skincare but not for inhalation.
We can’t reasonably expect dealers of illegal cannabis vapes would test their products for safety or share ingredient lists with customers. The thing is, consumers can’t necessarily expect that sort of testing or transparency from manufacturers of hemp-derived CBD vapes either—even if they’re buying them from vape shops, specialty stores, or websites that don’t appear to be breaking the law. The category is completely unregulated. And reckless players are not limited to labeling their products as THC. In September, the Associated Press tested 30 vape products marketed as CBD from brands that authorities had flagged as suspect, and found that 10 contained dangerous synthetic marijuana and many had little to no CBD at all.
While the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been struggling to research and regulate both CBD and vaping separately, the agency has allowed manufacturers to flood the market with both types of products. In the FDA’s eyes, none of these products are legal, as they have not been evaluated or regulated for their safety. And where these two categories overlap in CBD vapes is a grey area that’s ripe for exploitation at the risk of consumers’ health. According to analysts at Cowen and Company, that grey area was worth an estimated $40 million in sales in 2018.
Meanwhile Miller, along with many others in the cannabis and hemp industries, is eager for lawmakers to create legal frameworks for their products. They point to the reported illnesses from black-market vapes as proof that a legal, regulated cannabis market is a safer one.
A brief legal primer
The difference between cannabis and industrial hemp in the eyes of US law is the content of THC, the intoxicating compound in cannabis: If a plant contains more than 0.3% THC by dry weight, it’s cannabis, and still considered federally illegal despite the many states with legalized recreational and medicinal use. If it’s less 0.3% THC by dry weight, it’s considered hemp, which is being incrementally regulated by government agencies. The 2018 Farm Bill removed industrial hemp from the Controlled Substances Act, essentially declassifying it as a dangerous controlled substance of no medical use, clarifying its status as an agricultural product, and making it legal under federal law under some circumstances.
In May of this year, the FDA held a public hearing where more than 100 stakeholders—patients, manufacturers, and researchers among them—testified about their experiences with CBD. Now, the industry is waiting for a timeline for regulation, which was expected this autumn, but has yet to appear. In the meantime, the FDA considers interstate sale of CBD as a food additive or nutritional supplement (ie., all those candies, canned sodas, and tinctures) to be illegal. But it’s not enforcing the law so long as operators in the estimated $590 million market for hemp-derived CBD adhere to the broader rules for the categories they fall in, whether that’s food, supplements, or cosmetics.
But here’s where it gets complicated, because the FDA hasn’t regulated vaping yet.
“You get kind of a double grey area here,” says Miller. “CBD is considered illegal by the FDA, and vaping is now viewed pretty hostilely by the FDA. It really is a great unknown … Without the FDA engaged formally, it makes it a lot tougher for consumers to figure out what’s a good product and what’s not.”
You might be safer with weed
If you’re in a state where weed is legal, you might be safer smoking (or vaping) it, by going to a licensed dispensary for a high CBD-strain or vape that’s subject to the same regulations that cannabis is. In states like California and Oregon, where cannabis is regulated by state agencies, products with THC are subject to testing for contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals, solvents, and mold-related toxins. Again, hemp-derived CBD products are currently subject to … nothing.
“It’s the wild, wild west,” says Aaron Riley, the CEO of the Los Angeles-based cannabis testing lab CannaSafe, of the CBD landscape. Riley says that many of the CBD products CannaSafe tests would fail if they were subject to the same exacting standards as products containing THC—but they’re not. “You don’t have to get licensed. You don’t have to do any type of testing at all.”
Which isn’t to say that no one is testing CBD products. As the Hemp Roundtable’s Miller said, “some very well-meaning companies will try to promote the best practices.”
Some of those companies are those that come from the cannabis industry, and therefore have years of experience with extraction and testing.
The northern California-based company Bloom Farms—which has been in the cannabis extracts business since 2014—started selling hemp-derived CBD products online in January, and puts them through the same testing processes as their products with THC, which are under the strict purview of the California Bureau of Cannabis Control. Customers can also download a certificate of analysis from Bloom’s website that provides test results from a third-party lab, but that’s far from standard in the CBD space.
An oily situation
And of course, not all CBD vapes are created equal. Many extracts sold in vape pens and cartridges are diluted with other substances, such as medium-chain-triglyceride, or MCT, oils—fats that are frequently derived from natural sources such as coconut oil. While these are known to be safe to eat—and are often found in CBD tinctures—there’s little if any evidence that it’s safe to vape them, despite some manufacturers touting them as an all-natural ingredient.
“It’s totally horrifying to me,” says Katie Stem, an herbalist who cofounded the Oregon-based cannabis company Peak Extracts in 2014, and has researched plant medicine and chemistry at Oregon Health & Science University. “People should not be cutting [cannabis extracts] with any sort of culinary lipid.” Stem says that with an extraction process using carbon dioxide as a solvent, it’s possible to create a vape-able distillate containing only plant material, without any additives.
Quartz contacted two manufacturers of CBD vape pens that contain MCT oil, and neither has replied to our messages. Bloom Farms’ unflavored CBD vape contains no MCTs or other cutting agents. The company’s flavored CBD vape pens contain trace amounts of MCTs—less than 0.3% according to a company representative—and the company is currently phasing them out.
Neal Benowitz, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, who has studied the pharmacology of e-cigarettes, says that CO2 extraction process is “pretty clean,” and the results are well-known.
“People have been vaping them for a long time, and haven’t had a problem,” he says. “That seems to be relatively safe, and that’s a solvent that dissolves them. The question now is, when you start messing with that process, what are you adding to it?”
Benowitz said the effects of vaping MCT oil, however, is an understudied area.
“I’m concerned about it,” he says. “But I don’t have any data.”
Stem speculates the tendency to mix cannabis extract with MCTs might come down to greed or ignorance, and a misunderstanding of the term “cannabis oil,” which is something of a misnomer since CBD and THC extracts are not fatty lipids at all.
“They think, ‘Oh, it’s an oil. I can mix it with another oil and that will thin it and it will make it easier to flow into our vape pen,’ and it’s not harmful because we’re already smoking oil. Well, no. Cannabis extract is not an oil,” says Stem.
Kathryn Melamed, a pulmonologist at University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center who has seen patients affected by vaping, agrees that smoking oils can be dangerous, and notes that the vaping-related illness bears some resemblance to lipoid pneumonia—a direct reaction to lipids or oils in the lungs.
“While one type of substance—like vitamin E or maybe some other oil—can be ingested and metabolized through the gut, the lung just doesn’t have that ability,” she says. “So then it becomes much more dangerous, and a particle that the lung wants to try to fight and expel. And that’s the inflammatory response that you get.”
Is Smoking CBD Oil Dangerous
Article written by
Tina Magrabi Senior Content Writer
Tina Magrabi is a writer and editor specializing in holistic health. She has written hundreds of articles for Weedmaps where she spearheaded the Ailments series on cannabis medicine. In addition, she has written extensively for the women’s health blog, SafeBirthProject, as well as print publications including Destinations Magazine and Vero’s Voice. Tina is a Yale University alumna and certified yoga instructor with a passion for the outdoors.
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Is Using A CBD Oil Vape Pen Safe?
You’ve probably seen some headlines that talk about vaping negatively. That’s why you’re here. You want to know if using CBD oil vape pens is safe. What most of the research is telling us is that it is. The issues that have come up with vaping usually have to do with low-quality products with ingredients that can be dangerous for your health.
CBD oil overall is considered to be safe. The World Health Organization released a report saying that CBD is ‘well-tolerated and safe for human consumption’ and that it’s not found to be addictive to humans.
We’re going to go over the safest way to vape CBD oil and some of the benefits of choosing to do it that way.
CBD Oil with Unsafe Ingredients
One of the main issues that the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) found as the primary cause of the health risks with vaping products was the use of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate is something that is used as an additive to dilute the oil used in vaping and on its own doesn’t usually cause harm. But the CDC found that when it’s heated up and inhaled, it can ‘interfere with normal lung functioning.’
Beyond vitamin E acetate, the addition of certain solvents in CBD vape oil has the potential to be dangerous as well. Some of the most popular ones are propylene glycol (PG), polyethene glycol (PEG) and vegetable glycerin (VG) that is used to thin the CBD vape oil.
The trouble with these comes when you heat propylene glycol and polyethene glycol between 243 o celcius and 248 o celcius. When propylene glycol is heated, it can create formaldehyde and other carcinogenic compounds. Polyethene glycol heated up also produces formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The amount of formaldehyde produced by heating it can be comparable to inhaling a cigarette. This can cause respiratory issues like asthma, and they have been linked to certain kinds of cancer. It was also found in a study to cause the death of cells in the brains of mice.
Amphora uses CBD distillate with added terpenes for our vape oil, which is organic. We don’t use any types of solvents or carrier oils in our products. With CBD distillate, you get the best elements of the whole cannabis plant and added terpenes, which have many wellness benefits on their own.
Certificate of Analysis is Crucial
If you want to make sure the CBD inhale product you’re using is safe, you need to find the certificate of analysis (COA). A COA tells you that you’re getting what the brand says is in their CBD oil, and it has been certified by a third-party.
These certificates should be readily available to you. Please don’t mess with brands that don’t have them. At Amphora, our certificates of analysis are easy to find on our website.
CBD Oil Is Non-Psychoactive
Another common concern about the safety of vaping CBD oil is that you might get ‘high’ off of it. This is one of the biggest misconceptions most people have about vaping CBD. Getting ‘high’ won’t happen with CBD oil. CBD is non-psychoactive, unlike its cannabinoid cousin THC. Cannabis is listed as a controlled drug in the Misuse of Drugs Act, but CBD is not. CBD oil is legal in the UK, but the THC content must be below 0.2% for the product to be compliant.
Pros of Vaping
Vaping is one of the fastest-acting options for taking CBD. That’s all thanks to its bioavailability. Bioavailability just means the degree and rate that CBD gets absorbed into your bloodstream. We want CBD to reach our bloodstream fast so it can start working with the endocannabinoid system that helps our body maintain balance or homeostasis.
Eating edibles or capsules would have a low bioavailability because it has to go through your digestive system and has to be broken down by your liver before it enters the bloodstream. The upside to this way of taking CBD though is that it will last longer. When you inhale, the vapour goes into your lungs and rapidly enters your bloodstream.
Convenient and Discrete
One of the best things about vaping is the ease of it. Vaporizers have been designed to be discrete and can be stored in a carrying case, purse or backpack. You can also easily order them online. With so many options out there, you can find the type of vaporizer that works best for you.
Other Ways to Take CBD
If vaping isn’t your thing, then there are still lots of ways you can take CBD.
CBD Edibles and Capsules
CBD can be mixed with a bunch of different foods, but the most common are sweets such as gummies or lollipops. They also can come in capsules that you can swallow. When you take CBD orally, it passes through the digestive tract and is eventually metabolized by the liver where the CBD is broken down even more. Because of this process, it takes longer to be released into your bloodstream so the effects can take anywhere from 30 to 180 minutes, but the results will last longer.
These types of products usually come in the form of creams, lotions or balms that are applied directly to the skin where you’re experiencing an issue. This isn’t bioavailability but rather more of a localized effect. How fast it takes depends on how well it penetrates your skin so it could be anywhere from 30 – 120 minutes. This way of taking it is usually used for people who suffer from pain or inflammation.
Sublingual Tincture is CBD oil that comes in a bottle and allows you to put a few drops under your tongue. It’s a popular way to take CBD. Even though you’re putting it in your mouth, it doesn’t have to go through your digestive system. There are glands under your tongue that will absorb the oil if you leave it there for about a minute. Meaning it goes into your bloodstream quicker and you’ll feel the results faster. The only downside is that it may not last as long as when you eat an edible or capsule.
Vaping can be a great way to enjoy all of the benefits of CBD, but it’s essential to do your research. Make sure you’re using a brand you trust, and that is transparent about the ingredients they’re using in their CBD vape oil products. Then you know you can vape without worry.
Written by | Infused Amphora Team
The Infused Amphora Team is dedicated to creating resources to educate and engage consumers on the growing evidence of CBD benefits and the extensive health and wellness properties of CBD Oil.
Contributor | Angus Taylor CEO
Infused Amphora “Learn” is intended for informational purposes only and is NOT a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.