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BREWER , STEVEN W. (2001) Predation and Dispersal of Large and Small Seeds of a Tropical Palm. Oikos. ISSN 0030-1299

Predation and Dispersal of Large and Small Seeds of a Tropical Palm

BREWER , STEVEN W. (2001) Predation and Dispersal of Large and Small Seeds of a Tropical Palm. Oikos. ISSN 0030-1299


Seed size may vary greatly among individuals within plant species. What effects the extremes of this variation have for seeds taken by small mammals are poorly understood. Not all seeds removed by small mammals are necessarily eaten. Small rodents are common seed predators, but they may disperse a significant proportion of seeds by scatter hoarding them via burial. Size-dependent predation and dispersal of seeds has not been directly tested within a plant species for tropical rodents. This study tested whether or not large and small nuts of Astrocaryum mexicanum (Palmae) differed in their fates due to handling by the spiny pocket mouse Heteromys desmarestianus (Heteromyidae). Exclosures were used to give small rodents exclusive access to A. mexicanum nuts. H. desmarestianus preferentially consumed large over small A. mexicanum nuts, but cached (in burrows and by scatter hoarding) similar proportions of these nuts by size. Small nuts tended to be buried farther away from exclosures than large nuts. Although sample sizes of buried nuts were small, the rodents retrieved all buried large nuts, but 30% of the small nuts remained buried long enough to germinate. I also examined predispersal predation by insects and found that insects appear to have no size preference for A. mexicanum nuts, but insect predation appears to hinder nut development. Thus, nuts attacked by insects develop to be significantly smaller, with a low proportion of undamaged endosperm, than uninfested nuts. It is hypothesized that the preferential predation of large A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is a response by these rodents to insect predation

Ibz seeds
To begin pre heat the oven to 175.C

Living Through The Life Of Ibz

Once you except your limits you go beyond them!

Home-made granola recipe &The sugar debate 🙂

There has been a long standing debate between food lovers and experts deciding if convenient food is healthy for you and granola is one them. Well apart from having great PR and marketing it depends what granola you consume. The majority of granola’s on the market contain a huge amount of refined sugars. for example Jordan’s simple granola contains a whopping 7.70 grams of sugar per 45 gram serving! knowing you came here for the recipe, I will leave the nutritional information and the sugar debate at the bottom of the page.Now let’s get on with this recipe.

This recipe lasted me 5 days so depending on your serving size it should last 3-5 servings.

Most of my ingredients are from Grape Tree. They are a food and health store based in UK who sell all organic and fresh foods from Nuts and seeds to syrups and grains.. (I will leave a link to their website down below).

Chia Seeds 1tbsp

Ground Flaxseed 1tbsp

A cup of Mixed Nuts or nuts of your choice (alternatively you could use seeds such as sunflower seeds).

Goji berries 1tbsp

Oil Free Raisins 1 handful

1 handful of coconut flakes

Date syrup or any preference of syrup such as maple syrup.

To begin pre heat the oven to 175.C

Add 2 cups of oats to the mixing bowl.

For every cup of oats add one heaped teaspoon of mixed seeds.

Add one tbsp of ground flaxseeds`

Add one tablespoon of chia seeds to the bowl

Add a handful of nuts of your choice. I chose a mix of nuts; hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, walnuts.

The next few ingredients are optional but I would recommend including them in this recipe as they add great texture and enhance the flavours wonderfully.

Add a handful of dried goji berries

Add a handful of raisins

Add a couple of dates too, dates are a very good source of fibre and add natural sugars to the recipe which is why no added sugar is necessary.

Add !tbsp of raw cacao powder

Last for the dry ingredients add a handful of coconut flakes.

Lightly heat up a non stick pan.

1tbsp of raw peanut butter

1tbsp raw Almond butter

1tsp date syrup or any syrup of your choice.

1tsp of organic tahini paste

Slightly heat the pan until it begins to form into a paste.


Once you have created your mixture transfer the wet mixture to the dry ingredients and begin to thoroughly mix them together.

Having already preheated the oven it should be nice and warm now.

Place the whole mixture onto a baking tray; you can line the baking tray with baking paper to ensure it does not stick.

Leave in the oven for 10-15 minutes (check after 10 ).

If the mixture looks golden brown, smells really good and feels crispy you know the mixture is ready. Once you have taken the granola out of the oven allow to cool for another 10-15 minutes.

As promised I will now write a bit about sugar: daily recommendations and how to reduce eating so much refined sugar.

Basic facts about sugar!

Sugars are found in carbohydrates which are naturally found in the majority of foods.The main purpose of sugar is to prov > make them sweeter and more appetising.

Many foods that contain refined added sugars are also very high in calories for example brownies and ice cream these also have very very low nutritional value. Eating such foods frequently can contribute to people getting certain diseases such as: diabetes type 2, obesity, stroke and many other life threatening illnesses.

Check the back of food products as sugar is just an umbrella term and can come under any of the following names; Glucose, Maltose, Sucrose, Corn syrup, Honey, Hydrolysed starch, Invert sugar, Fructose and Molasses, to name a few of the main one used,

According to the NHS website which was last reviewed on the first of May 2018, added sugars should not make up more than 5% of our daily intake of sugars. This is roughly 30 grams of sugar a day for people aged 11 and over. The website also goes onto say that fruits are better consumed whole rather than juiced, this is because when they are juiced the sugars are released which can cause tooth decay if consumed regularly.

My advice to anyone wanting to cut sugar out of their diet would be:

  1. Do not follow any fad diets such as the Atkins diet. unless you are recommended to follow a specific diet by a doctor or nutritionist, you do not need to excessively restrict anything from your diet. Some people would try and stop consuming sugar considerably fast. do not do this as this would put your body under a huge amount of stress and could result in you to crash and therefore you will find yourself eating sugar the way you used too. I would advise you to begin slowly for example if you ate a 100g bowl of cereal in the morning each down perhaps try lowering it to 95g and each day or every few days slowly restrict yourself.
  2. Eat more fruits. Fruits contain natural sugars which our body can then transfer into glucose providing us with energy and fruits are a great replacement to your candy bars and usual treats. here a few example of fruits I eat frequently: bananas, apples, pears,figs,dates,pomegranates and berries.
  3. using natural sweeteners such as honey instead of shop bought refined sugar. although it is also important to get organic honey due to the amount of sugars and other ingredients added to the majority of honey in supermarkets. (I will leave ths for another post) ?

I hope you have enjoyed reading this blog post. please let me know if you liked it and would like to see more content about nutrition and recipes.

you can simply just leave a comment or follow me on social media and I will get back to you.

Much love & I wish you all good health.

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For more information and guidlines on sugar the NHS Sugar Advice Page.

If you have any questions or feedback please get in touch with me through the comment box below. Thank you!