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do female marijuana plants produce seeds

Do female marijuana plants produce seeds
When cultivating cannabis, the objective is to harvest nice big colas of which the calyxes are a part. Not just any ordinary part, but the most important part, because the calyxes are where you find the reproductive organs of the plant, called the pistils, and the trichomes.

Getting To Know The Cannabis Calyx, Resinous To The Top

Knowing what a calyx is and what parts the calyx is comprised of can provide the cannabis grower with tips and tools to help with a successful and easy harvest.

WHAT IS A CALYX

The calyx is the first part of the flower that is formed when a young plant enters its flowering stage, if it is indeed a plant that is capable of flowering of course. In a perfect spiraling Fibonacci sequence the plant quickly and in the most efficient way forms a protective platform comprising of small leaves, which are called the sepals. This protective platform for the flower in its entirity is called the calyx.

The calyx is designed to protect the plants reproductive organs in between the sepals and provide the flower with a base of stability. Even though all flowering male and female plants have calyxes, it is when looking at cannabis plants specifically, that only the calyxes of the female plants are of interest to the aspiring cannabis grower.

When cultivating cannabis, the objective is to harvest nice big colas of which the calyxes are a part. Not just any ordinary part, but the most important part, because the calyxes are where you find the reproductive organs of the plant, called the pistils, and the trichomes.

The pistils are where you see the long hairs coming from; these hairs are called stigmas. The stigmas will start out white when the plant is still in its early flowering stage, but will turn amber or yellow, and ultimately brown, as the plant progresses through its flowering stage. The trichomes are the resin glands where the cannabinoids are formed, including the psychoactive and more familiar THC.

WHAT DOES THE CALYX TELL AN EXPERIENCED GROWER

The pistils are also the best tool a grower to spot the difference between the male and the female plants. It is important to recognize the male plants early on so they can be removed and any risk of pollination can be minimized or even excluded. Female plants can be recognized by their long white hairs, that will begin to form early in the flowering stages of forming the buds or colas. The male plants will have pollen sacks, that will start to dangle in a downward fashion and eventually will burst open to pollinate the female calyxes.

The stigmas or long hairs can help a grower identify when a plant is ready to be harvested. In the first weeks a female cannabis flower or bud is formed, it will have long white hairs coming out if it. After 4 to 5 weeks the stigmas will start to turn yellowish. When about 50 to 80 percent of your plants’ buds have stigmas, that have turned yellow or amber, they are ready to be harvested. If you harvest later, the stigmas will turn brown and dry out; do not wait this long to harvest your cannabis plants, as it will have your buds lose potency and taste.

In fact most of the cannabinoids are formed in the pistils and the calyxes of the cannabis plant. This is the flower part of the plant, that will eventually be harvested, dried and cured and ultimately will be ready for consumption.

The consumption part is why you do not want your female plants to be pollinated; they would start to form seeds, which are a real hassle to remove and leave a horrible taste and crackling sound when smoked. Also most of the female plants energy will be diverted into making the seeds, not swelling up the buds and forming cannabinoids.

If you intentionally aim to make your own strain of cannabis by crossing two breeds or strains, watch the calyxes of your developing plants to identify the males and females you want to use for your experiment.

WHAT IS A CALYX-TO-LEAF RATIO

When harvesting your cannabis plants, you will have to trim off the leaves to expose the buds, which then in turn can be properly dried and cured.

The big leaves, that grow lower on the plant and in between the budding areas, but not in the buds or cola’s themselves, are called fan leaves; these are basically the solar panels of the plant. These leaves provide the plant with the energy it needs to grow and form buds. The few fan leaves that remain after pruning during the flowering stage can be easily trimmed away at harvest when growing indoors. When growing outdoors, most fan leaves will still be attached to the plant at the end of the flowering stage but these can be easily removed at the time of harvesting.

There are also leaves sticking out of the buds themselves; these are called sugar leaves, because they are coated with trichomes, that look sugary white, and these are a lot harder to trim, because the high level of resin makes them very sticky. Sticky leaves mean you will have to clean your equipment more and the tools you are using will get harder to operate due to the moving parts getting stuck together.

The sugar leaves is what the calyx-to-leaf ratio is all about, it tells you how much of a hassle it is going to be to trim when harvested. Plants with a high calyx-to-leaf ratio have fewer sugar leaves, making the buds or colas easier to trim.

Sugar leaves aren’t all bad though; they can be very well used to make edibles or cannabutter, tinctures, extractions, topicals or even hashish. They can even be smoked, but because of the higher combustion temperature of the leaves the taste may be affected.

The top 5 strains with a high calyx-to-leaf ratio are:

Do female marijuana plants produce seeds
To determine the sex of your cannabis plants, you will have to wait until the pre-flowering stage when plants begin to put their energy into reproduction. Female cannabis plants show their gender signs later than males. At the location where they will soon grow their buds (the nodes between the stalk and the stem), females will show wispy white hairs.

How To Tell If Your Female Cannabis Plant Has Been Pollinated

Pollination of your female cannabis plants will make them produce seeds and spend less energy on producing quality buds. But when you recognise the signs of pollination early, you can avoid putting time and resources into a poor harvest.

There is a good reason why most growers keep male plants away from their ladies: Pollination from males causes the females to develop seeds. As a result, females focus their energy on seed production, rather than on growing you some fine-quality bud. This seedy and unfortunate final product can be avoided by implementing a few basic techniques.

Obviously, no one wants to smoke seedy weed. When you grow cannabis and learn how to identify male plants and signs of pollination, you can remove these plants to save your remaining females. Likewise, recognising a pollinated female early allows you to start again before it’s too late, rather than finishing a grow that will only result in a poor-quality harvest.

HOW TO TELL THAT A FEMALE PLANT HAS BEEN POLLINATED

Among the early signs that your female has been pollinated is that her bracts become larger. Bracts are small, leaf-like structures that protect the female’s reproductive parts. These are the sites from which the flowering buds appear. Do not confuse the bracts with calyxes.

A good test to see whether the bracts have swollen is to take a pair of tweezers, grab one bract, and open it up. If there is a seed inside, you have a pollinated plant.

Another indication of pollination can be the colour of her pistil hairs. When a female has been pollinated, the previously white hairs will soon shrivel and become darker.

HOW TO AVOID POLLINATION OF YOUR FEMALE PLANTS

Pollination requires the presence of males or intersex (hermaphrodite) plants, which are females that will also produce pollen. The first thing you want to do to keep the risk of pollination low is to remove as many males or “hermies” as as you can. Especially during the first three weeks of flowering, it’s important to frequently check for possible male specimens in your garden.

The typical cannabis grower normally doesn’t have a reason to keep males, and will want to get rid of them as soon as they are spotted. Cannabis breeders, on the other hand, may want to keep males along with their crop of female plants. In such cases, the breeder will normally separate the sexes to avoid any accidental pollination. They may grow females in one tent and males in another. When grown outdoors, such as in a garden, the males are often kept in the most remote corner of their growing area, as far from the females as possible. Even then, because of the wind carrying around the pollen, there is always some risk of accidental pollination.

HOW TO SPOT MALE CANNABIS PLANTS

To determine the sex of your cannabis plants, you will have to wait until the pre-flowering stage when plants begin to put their energy into reproduction. Female cannabis plants show their gender signs later than males. At the location where they will soon grow their buds (the nodes between the stalk and the stem), females will show wispy white hairs.

Male plants won’t show hairs at these nodes, but will develop little sacs of pollen. These pollen sacs will look like little balls. These balls can appear on their own or in clusters, depending how far into the pre-flowering stage the plant is. At some later stage of growth, the pollen sacs will burst open, spilling the pollen and possibly pollinating your females.

WHAT TO DO WHEN YOUR FEMALES GET POLLINATED?

Spotting male cannabis plants and pollinated females early can save you from investing further time and effort into an entire growing season that will be for naught. Most of the time, the best course of action is to get rid of the males along with your pollinated ladies and just start a new grow.

HOW TO AVOID THE ISSUE OF POLLINATION

There is, of course, a way to avoid the issue of pollination altogether for the home grower. As a result of innovation in the modern cannabis industry, feminized seeds are now available in a wide variety of new and legendary strains. Unlike with regular seeds, you won’t need to even worry about identifying or separating males during your grow. As long as your feminized seeds are sourced from a reputable retailer, all seeds will grow into plants with smokable bud. With this knowledge, it is up to you to decide what kind of seeds will suit your growing parameters and personal goals as a cultivator.