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acid x seeds

Acid x seeds
Outdoor, Acid will grow in the northern hemisphere (up to 50� n.L.), although yields won�t be so impressive as those plants grown in warmer climates. This plant responds well to sun beams and will reward the grower in southern regions around the Mediterranean, from Spain to Croatia, southern US states and parts of South America.

Acid x seeds

Here you can find all info about Acid from Paradise Seeds. If you are searching for information about Acid from Paradise Seeds, check out our Basic Infos, Gallery, Direct Comparisons, Shop-Finder and Price Comparison, Lineage / Genealogy, Hybrids / Crossbreeds or User Comments for this cannabis variety here at this page and follow the links to get even more information – or list all Acid Strains (±6) to find a different version. If you have any personal experiences with growing or consuming this cannabis variety, please use the upload links to add them to the database!

Basic / Breeders Info

Ac > mostly indica variety from Paradise Seeds and can be cultivated indoors (where the plants will need a flowering time of ±65 days ) and outdoors . Paradise Seeds’ Ac >

Paradise Seeds’ Ac > Mental Holiday� Looking for a soaring high that numbs pain and has the ability to take you away from the day to day grind? Look no further than Acid, an indica / sativa cross that is our own take on the original New York City Diesel.

The original strain of the Diesel was developed in the US. We selected a Diesel mother plant and crossed it with our favorite Dutch genetics to create Acid, one of our next generation strains. This breeding process has created a cross variety that comes with real super powers. It is stronger and more potent than the original Diesel and produces big yields too.

As the name suggests, expect a powerful combination of narcotic sensations (positive and uplifting with a pleasant psychedelic stirring). The taste and smell, which inspired the name Acid, is specific � metallic and slightly petrol – in keeping with the distinctive flavor of Sour Diesel.

This strain is good for indoor and outdoor growing. The inside gardener will appreciate this plant because it is enjoyable to grow 9-10 weeks flowering time). That said, when it flowers it becomes rather fruity and the smell can be an issue if you don�t have good filters in place. However, if your odor beaters are well secured, then the bouquet of this plant is one of its special characteristics.

Outdoor, Acid will grow in the northern hemisphere (up to 50� n.L.), although yields won�t be so impressive as those plants grown in warmer climates. This plant responds well to sun beams and will reward the grower in southern regions around the Mediterranean, from Spain to Croatia, southern US states and parts of South America.

The effects of Acid are impressive. Expect to feel as light as an angel and your day to take an unexpected shine. Definitely good for inspiration, not to mention an energizing tonic if you need some get up and go for a night time shuffle. Acid is a favorite with medical cannabis users too, easing the symptoms of pain and depression and lifting the body.

Characteristics:
Type: Indica 60% / Sativa 40%.
Flowering time: 65 days indoors. End of October outdoors (n.L.).
Suitable environment: Indoors. Outdoors between 50� n.L. and 50� s.L..
Yield: 400 g per m� indoors in soil, 700 g per plant outside.
Effect: Powerful, overwhelming, uplifting.
Flavor: Sour, grapefruit.
THC: ***
CBD: *

Where to buy Ac >

Ac >59 offers between EUR 10.01 for 1 feminized seed and EUR 688.98 for 100 feminized seeds. If you are looking to buy Acid Cannabis Seeds from Paradise Seeds somewhere – have a look to our Acid Price Comparison page with all current offers from all the connected seedbanks and shops – or visit one of the following tested, trustworthy and recommended seed-shops directly to check out their current Acid offers: Indras Planet GmbH, Alchimia Grow Shop, Seedsman, Zamnesia, Green Parrot Seed Store, canna-seed.com, Seeds24.at, Herbies Head Shop, Canna-Seed Seed Shop, Oaseeds, Herbalist, Cannapot Hanfshop, Cheeba Beans, Amsterdam Seed Center, Linda Seeds | Linda Semilla, Hanf & Hanf, Chu Majek, Samenwahl.com and Original Seeds Store.

Here you see the latest Acid photos, uploaded from our users! Altogether we’ve collected 65 pictures from Paradise Seeds’ Acid, check out our Acid gallery to view them all.

Furthermore, the association of this bacterium to carrot seeds significantly decrease the germination index parameter (P mean germination time (MGT) was also significantly affected, by the association of CaLso 1 (P et al. 1955; McGee 1979). The present result is in agreement with the study of (Islam 2005). In addition, it has been reported that bacteria reduce significantly the germination percentage of seeds (Jamadar et al. 2001; Gupta et al. 1989) .

The effect of acetic acid treatment on germination parameters of carrot seeds infected with “Candidattus Liberibacter solanacearum”

Attachments:

Volume 10, Article 1 [Volume 10, Article 1] 376 kB

1 High Agronomic Institute of Chott-Mariem, University of Sousse, 4042 Chott-Mariem, Tunisia

2 Higher School of Agriculture, Mograne, Carthage University, 1121 Zaghouan, Tunisia

Abstract – The purpose of the research was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of acetic by comparing certain germination parameters of two carrot seed lots. The first seed lot is infected with the fastidious plant pathogenic bacterium ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ recently detected in Tunisia while the second one was safe. Contaminated seeds were treated with acetic acid solutions at different concentrations of 5%, 10% and 20%. Seeds were tested on moist filter paper, in seed trays under controlled conditions. Results showed a clear significant difference between tested germination parameters of both lots of seeds, explaining thus the negative effect of this fastidious bacterium on germination parameters. Acetic acid treatment has a significant positive effect on germination parameters of contaminated carrot seeds. However, at the highest concentration, these parameters were negatively affected. These results may help carrot producers to develop a control strategy able to minimize the spread of this bacterium.

Keywords: organic acid, alternative treatments, seed borne pathogen, germination parameters

Plant pathogens are considered as one of the most serious problems in cultivation since they can reduce the quantity and the quality of harvested seeds. In fact, some plant pathogens could be preserved in seed lots; in this way, seeds can inadvertently provide an efficient means of plant pathogen dissemination. The bacterium ‘ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum ’ (Liefting et al. 2009), also known as ‘ Ca . Liberibacter psyllaurous ’ and referred to as CaLso (Hansen et al. 2008), is associated with zebra chip, which is one of the most economically important bacterial diseases of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.). More recently CaLso was also shown to cause vegetative disorders in Apiaceous crops in different areas worldwide (Haapalainen 2014). According to (Pitman et al. 2011) CaLso is transmitted from potato mother tubers to growing plants as well as to progeny tubers. For carrot crops, this bacterium was also considered as a carrot seed borne pathogen according to (Bertolini et al. 2014); being a seed borne disease enhance the risk of its introduction into new areas in which contaminated carrot seeds are commercialized.

The most effective means of controlling seed borne diseases is essentially the exclusion or reduction of the inoculum during seed production. Unfortunately, infection and contamination cannot always be avoided. Various seed treatments are used to reduce the amount of inoculum transmitted by the seeds. Seed treatments are strongly favoured over field sprays, as relatively small amounts of active compounds are required and applications can be made in restricted areas in order to reduce health risks. Among the used treatments there may be mentioned some physical treatments such as: hot water, electron beam and hot humid air that are commercially used for seeds disinfection. These treatments are able to reduce the inoculum load, but they are often not able to completely eliminate the inoculum without affecting the vitality of the seeds (Forsberg et al. 2002). Natural antimicrobial compounds could be also used as another alternative for seed disinfection, thus they can be combined with physical treatment in order to enhance their efficacy.

In fact, various organic acids exhibit antimicrobial activity (Bloukas et al. 1997). Some of them, such as acetic acid and lactic acid have been used for controlling seed borne diseases as they present low ecotoxicological profiles. According to El-Naimi et al. (2000), Saidi et al. (2001) and Borgen et al. (2004) acetic acid and lactic acid reduced infection of common bunt in wheat from 64% to 96%.

Since seed health has a particular importance and seeds are considered as a potential vehicle for transmitting beneficial or deleterious bacteria, this paper focuses on the study of the effect of CaLso on some germination parameters for carrot seeds, especially the germination test as it is considered as the most important quality in evaluating the planting value of seed lot. The effect of acetic acid at different concentration was also studied in order to determine the suitable concentration for reducing the effect of CaLso and preserving seed viability.

2. Material et Methods

2.1. Carrot seeds

Seed samples of the cultivar “Arbi Zaafrana” were obtained from carrot seeds production area (Zaafrana, Kairouan, Tunisia), during two consecutive years 2015 and 2016. In 2015, three lots of seeds (SE1, SE2 and SE3) were analyzed for CaLsol presence and they tested negative (Ben Othmen et al. 2018). In 2016, seed samples (SE4, SE5 and SE6) were proved to be highly contaminated with a viability of CaLso cells ranging from 36% to 65% (Ben Othmen et al. 2018).

2.2. Seed treatment

The effect of seed treatment with acetic acid on CaLso on carrot seeds was assessed. Contaminated seed samples of 2016 were treated with acetic acid solutions at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 20%. For each treatment seeds were soaked in each solution for ten minutes then, they were placed in a sieve and excess compound was removed with sterilized distilled water. Thus, they were placed in plates to dry overnight at room temperature.

2.3. Seed germination test

Viable seeds with uniform size were selected and used for germination test. Three replicates of 50 seeds from each treatment (150 seeds) were placed in labeled Petri dishes containing two layers of moistened blotters and incubated at 28°C, in darkness. The total number of germinated seeds (Gmax) was determined on the basis of the number of seeds with visible radical (≥ 2 mm) counted daily for 10 days. Seeds were considered germinated when there was a visible coleoptiles protrusion through the testa. The following germination parameters were recorded:

Germination percentage (Gp) = (# seeds sprouted/ #total seeds sprouted) x 100

Mean Germination Time

MGT (day) = ∑ f×x ∑ f (Orchard 1977)

(Where f=Seeds germinated on day x)

Coefficient of Velocity of Germination

The germination index

(GI) was calculated as described in the Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA, 1983) by following formula:

2.4. Data analyses

Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA, and the significant difference between means was determined by Duncan’s multiple range test using SPSS 20 software. Significance was defined at P

3. Results and discussion

In present experiment the negative effect of the fastidious bacterium “ Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum ” on carrot seed germination rate was very clear. In fact, the germination rate recorded for the safe carrot seeds was significantly higher compared to the recorded one for contaminated seeds (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Effect of “ Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum ” on seed germination percentage

Because of the presence of CaLso, this rate decrease significantly from 89.33% to 59.33% ( P ) for the contaminated carrot seeds (Table 1). Moreover, it can be postulated that this bacterium decreased the total number of germinating seeds and consequently the germination capacity. On the 3 rd day after seeding we recorded a higher germination rate for the safe seeds (70.66%) while on the 6 th day the highest germination rate was recorded for the CaLsol positive carrot seeds (40.66%). According to this result we can assume that the germination process was slowed down by the presence of bacterium which could explain the higher rate recorded on the 6 th day for the contaminated carrot seeds.

Furthermore, the association of this bacterium to carrot seeds significantly decrease the germination index parameter (P mean germination time (MGT) was also significantly affected, by the association of CaLso 1 (P et al. 1955; McGee 1979). The present result is in agreement with the study of (Islam 2005). In addition, it has been reported that bacteria reduce significantly the germination percentage of seeds (Jamadar et al. 2001; Gupta et al. 1989) .

The observation of germination parameters of carrot seeds indicate that the safe seeds present the highest germination percentage and the highest germination index (Table 1) compared to the contaminated carrot seeds. This result unveiled the negative effect of this bacterium on the seed quality which consequently affects the germinations parameters specially the germination rate and the germination index. The CVG parameter was not significantly affected neither with the presence of CaLsol nor with the acetic acid treatment.

Table 1. Effect of treatment with acetic acid at different concentrations on germination parameters of carrot seeds-associated with “ Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum